To achieve this goal, MT- MLE was employed. Indeed, even if mother tongue education were one day to be employed right through to Matric level, learners would still need to be proficient in English for the purposes of higher education where, in a globalised academic environment, English is indispensable. /XObject <> But while we talk about the mother tongue instruction we take the second meaning of the term. h��mo�8�� ?6X$�����M�m����� the mother tongue has been pointed out even in some developed countries8; but developed countries are already economically strong and are generally already more competitive than developing countries in the global village. At the moment, however, English is, in many cases, badly taught in South African schools. Coming from a politically-neutral position, the paper argues that Teaching methods and students’ environments have to be taken into account also. �� Nz�&?�� �Y����l����]�sדs��s��t��8xq�R.�ڢ''}�.A�����} N�� b@��ԩ��!1>��t�$�������թn���h]h�8�kOra �)�uL{Ilho}��,�=�ĝ����؞��uH���F���r�$�b�� }���0��f��������Qm�o _'h�er� �hd��SF0'���z�Dr�-�Z֦o�w�۬RS���{U"l�� �|�z�B����m@�h}~��F|�W�s�+i;��݅δ���o��� G���;��������W|a$,]�/k���#���(X ?p��#��`Ǿ�N��L�|[��F1ys����n"�����\�/�M�u��@��d��b.w��ܢ�����pБʊ�hW�X�7~~Y0�%p�S� 8�.��D�b���C$p���;� Խ���{�=�����o�!�/���_�-‚��� E���bw�K���0�ї���Z+ߖ�}���`5��3�����x��_E�k6�vO�Q. +[��F�jVE����a�\��i(��WE����U�şK�E~F������䡈+[op��3��8����Zŷ�7�(��c����b�T�UL�L0�HH�p�f���4�W Many education systems favour using national or ‘global’ languages instead of mother-tongue teaching. Introduction Georgia is located on the east coast of the Black Sea at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, and borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey. Georgia has a population of approximately 3,700,000 International schools and mother tongue. %PDF-1.6 %���� The educational achievements of migrant children.....18 The growth and extent of multilingual classrooms.....22 National policies and … Further to this, the effectiveness of a MT will be discussed in a formal setting and main aspects of education … What We Know About Mother Tongue Development The research is very clear about the im-portance of bilingual children’s mother tongue for their overall personal and educational development. This order shifted from the original mother tongue approach by specifying twelve major regional h�b```e``Z������� ̀ �@1V �x���d�V��f�l�;"B[���6{ݸŪ��4u��5�v.��q�v�{G�KEGCE��Xсa� NΓ`�����Zw0I4�\���h�����0ف�������������4?��İ��ju�� �1}u� �m�@����� X��H�0p^8Q�� � Y=< This is, of course, one of the reasons why bilingual education systems are growing in popularity around the world and many international schools are focusing their resources on establishing strong mother tongue programmes. /TrimBox [0.0000 0.0000 595.2760 841.8900] mother tongue (MT) in education is not a new issue in Nigeria, for according to the records, the missionaries were said to have used mother tongues for initial primary education. >> Mother tongue in education refers to when a school or educational institution integrates the language a child is most familiar with (their mother tongue) into the classroom lesson along with the school’s lesson (such as English). cally children’s mother tongues, in their educational development. <> Mother tongue education is taken for granted in countries that have not been oppressed by colonialism, in their distant or more recent histories. ���� N+�*,�E��d�ۘm�0�6-�%�:Gy����8�� ���O�~���eL�xa�6ʘ���2��6�c��`��/��._9,�y�sn{(��yG�5���2�ڠS�B cB߰�Q!�R�T���g�=��Զw���>h����VbG�Z\R��e� �ڲ���-�X�M�: #�0_�²�m��uN��~��ΐv��˯w��M[ӓp��x�c�3Iw�5�6o?�[gs�J��I��P�q�=�XΧ O��t�{�L�/���W���m[q��wb8�J�' ��J^ The spirit Therefore, the findings reflected that a bilingual education program is necessary to be educated in mother tongue. Education is often carried What is mother tongue in education? /Parent 101 0 R Even British colonial language policy, when formulated, also supported the use of the mother tongue in early primary education. endstream endobj 254 0 obj <>/Metadata 42 0 R/OCProperties<>>>/Pages 251 0 R/StructTreeRoot 73 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 255 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 256 0 obj <>stream %PDF-1.5 %���� H��W�n�F}'��G���p�$p| �6 ZȃUM�l$�&)� a�aƑ|��g�U"| X�_k��#�XoM=��H�����Ls&��0Pm��M;�' MR�8���1���Z�sb� Xo=���*�J����%49N��ņwLuZ·���Z1Dj/�:ؔ��n�2S>��+���uْ� �y��ђ�Δ���7��+#5�1�6յsQSXt=��I�R����Sƽ����S`�)v�+-�+M�AQJ\�T�� ���Λʂ��pY %%EOF However, the language policy of university educational systems should not be considered and developed in �)�(XP�g)�֒R�QĞ{Jf.>(�T�Ոf����"*��������:�L)ۀ� J��v[\G�VTIbU <> There is debate whether students to be taught in their mother >> Research has shown that education in students’ mother tongue improved learning and self-confidence, reduced dropout rates, and eased the students’ adjustment to school (cited in Vawda and Patrinos, 1999). /MediaBox [0.0000 0.0000 595.2760 841.8900] publication of instructional materials for the teaching of Mother Tongue and that the educational language policy makers review their position with regard to Mother tongue with a view to promoting it both as a language of instruction and a subject. Two hypotheses were also raised for the study at 0.05 level of significance. With the introduction of the new K-12 program, in 2012 the Department of Education of the Philippines implemented the teaching of the Mother Tongue- based Multi-lingual Education among the kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 learners. Mother tongue education has a crucial role in ensuring school attendance, raising the quality of education, and integrating children into society. Department of Education, 2009). /ExtGState <> Dr. Muhammad Tariq Khan . mother tongue in education has been shifted towards the access and the success of the quality education. endobj Learn what this really means and its importance, plus a look at the top 20 mother tongues. ��;{_ʖ�,rv.g����#�0�Oh&P��$/P_G_P�G��/1���-Fg]�;��G���X���41g��� yʒ�s� Abstract. Mother-Tongue Education When done well, mother-tongue education (MTE) is more effective than second language (L2) education. PDF | Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. /Rotate 0 mother-tongue education mostly advantages first language Afrikaans and English speakers in more affluent schools. mother tongue based education (MTBE) and discusses the relations between MT, education and its impacts on students' academic achievement. In general, however, the longer a child is able to learn in and through his or her mother tongue(s) the greater the educational benefits that can be expected. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] National 274 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2D1C708F37EADB4CA844618986E8CF07>]/Index[253 50]/Info 252 0 R/Length 103/Prev 643831/Root 254 0 R/Size 303/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Mother Tongue Based – Multilingual Education has always been emphasized in discussing its curriculum. O . Keywords: mother tongue, language, mixed method, education 1. This policy is the first of its kind in South-East Asia, requiring that the mother tongue be utilised for the early years of schooling, with gradual oral introduction of the national language (Filipino) and English. Mother tongue instruction may have two connotations: teaching mother tongue itself and imparting formal education in the first language of students. The paper also attempts to give a sociolinguistic perspective of MTB. /CropBox [0.0000 0.0000 595.2760 841.8900] 2 0 obj This is normally the language that the child speaks at home with their family. 4�I�#U������T�I�ÿ�g� International Journal of Humanities and Management Sciences (IJHMS) Volume 2, Issue 4 (2014) ISSN 2320 4044 (Online) 148. mother tongue. others. For example, in a rural agricultural society, concepts which derive from a highly technological society will be less relevant and consequently less comprehensible. Three research questions were used as a guide to the study. 1 0 obj Another order was issued in 2012 that offered more specific guidelines for MTB-MLE and embedded the reform in the newly adopted ―K to 12 Basic Education Program‖ (Philippines Department of Education, 2012). 1. the importance of mother-tongue learning1 the dominance of non-mother tongue education In many developing countries, a significant proportion of children enter school not speaking the language of the classroom. Mother Tongue, by Amy Tan I am not a scholar of English or literature. L���X�IB�ѕ����TN\��&G? I am fascinated by language in daily life. /BleedBox [0.0000 0.0000 595.2760 841.8900] mother tongue education policy on Nigeria children’s achievement in reading skills. Education in Mother Tongue - A Children’s Right . I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on the English language and its variations in this country or others. Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (2 009). Mother tongue education is not the answer to everything. �y�pL1/ Key words: mother tongue education in Abkhazia, multilingual education. stream 0 mother-tongue education, attitudinal factors, the extent of stakeholders’ support for mother-tongue education, parents’ education and their awareness about education through mother tongue and parent school involvements. ��P�.���X�É$���{D8��D$X0�Q�`���#W�ќd �>���6/��B/!��R����C�i��z�&�HHJ�� �χ@E��F���A��Խ[D��B�����K�XGǗwe����I5��͢�g|sq~q�qJ0����[���E+~�K��"G� .A -�Q|r:[�����O���&_����Ͻ���F���}`��������/AH^���|I�/�\�W��>>>)|�l.R�@�C�^b /ArtBox [0.0000 0.0000 595.2760 841.8900] Mother tongue based multilingual education takes many forms and each school and each community should determine what works best for them. /Contents 2 0 R i DECLARATION I declare that: Exploring the use of mother tongue as the medium of instruction in Grade 4: A case study of four primary schools in the East London Education District is my own work and that all the sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated D��4c���Ѷ�.�K'+#K�NMEeL Iʀ��ʊ�����U�3td jD�D ڈ��r����XI9JB�J� ��8k �h��mg��RC_ڤh�*ެ��ͳ���r�9�Co�;pT��`/g�Ͻ[�$m��ѯ��s����N�B����*�#����}�c�q�_3���6ۛv��C&s���i45N#2�9U��6��,y-ǹ���k��/y���,N���[��׿�1���)m�c�����f�,ֳ�|5[�7��&+��%�/�/� ��ڮ��s}?��l���. /Font <> I am a writer. �����8�l�n��o�"iJ���E�P�(XR�p8|�G#:�(B 7�0j!7�19����A�[JU�3"�[N4e��A�J(`/�@���TJ�M �,v�f�G$� �(�\@�cDI And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. Pattanayak (2003) in a study about India opined that This does not mean that monolingualism, or the use of one language is the norm, or desirable (Alexander ibid). h�bbd```b``6��@$� This paper provides a literature review of recent studies of Mother Tongue-based (MTB) education in Myanmar. More detail on the research findings summarized below can be found in Baker (2000), 'JK A�ES�$�rV�2�M�Dk�!Ni��P���A���i���� ���b8xQ����� _� �ݑ�b�^.n������W��m� 0wJޟ�W���}wC���0~$�5(2���uY�����P]A��7�/��8�׏uq�\M�UqC(tmJ�K����u1*�׷�R�3n L�I�;S�hn�$�U1ެ>�n�MV�bCL1��q���-�݌2X,�0�]^^L���p��i���h#��ͫ�f���� ֞�����*X��)0��[|`���r4�����K��p���*�t5���_��?.�'M�l^� {�5o'�u����~j$�\�X�zs��x�\�O�ꦱNc1�L����n^ Mother tongue refers to a person's native language. Keywords: Teachers, Attitudes, Mother Tongue, Instruction, Lower Primary Schools, Kenya 1. As the number of English first-language speakers is only the fourth highest of all the language groups in South Africa, it follows that the majority of children in the country are taught in a language that is not their mother-tongue.School subjects in South Africa are either taught in English from grade 1 all the way through to matric or the first three years of education are presented in the children’s first language (any of the other ten official o… In the study, the researcher used a mixed method approach in For township learners, the standard African languages may in fact not be their native dialects (Cook 2009), whereas, as Owen-Smith (2010) notes, their English and Afrikaans- ɹD�4�HV�8�z0)�fo����B��`�2�| $��^ �A��=������#c�v�AJ�g`�z` r Mother tongue education is a cause for concern in many places of the world, including Botswana. endstream endobj startxref 253 0 obj <> endobj Po-litical decision-making as regards mother tongue education func-tions as a tool for achieving nationalistic interests such as equality for all or exclusion, assimilation, homogenization and “Swedifica-tion”, or … Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Quarter 1 – Module 4 Rhyming Words This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public schools. The study adopted the randomized pre-test experimental and control group as design. Nepal, along with the nations of the world expressed its commitments for education For All (EFA) by the year 2015. Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) One of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the new K-12 program is the introduction of Mother Tongue- Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 to support the goal of “ Every Child- A- Reader and A –Writer” by Grade 1.” 302 0 obj <>stream shown mother tongue education to be a highly political issue. ��nK�̵�/�D�Ǿ*J��G&V�q3�,�g���]������oK80DO ���߮��TI�$4�\�S�&�:G�f��o�W�.�9�̷��,�3H0��`;k��5���g�xi֤y��(H�UK�. It is stated in the K to 12 Toolkit (2012) that the mother tongue or the child’s first language will be used as the primary medium of instruction from preschool until Grade III. The answer to everything one language is the norm, or desirable ( Alexander ibid.. 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